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Medical terminology used in articles on blepharospasm

The medical terminology in some of the articles may be better understood with the help of a glossary.

acetylcholinesterase enzyme produced naturally in the body to break down the production of acetylcholine - a chemical that promotes messages going from nerve endings to other nerve endings

apraxia of eyelid difficulty in opening the eyes in the absence of spasms
aqueous watery
atrophy wasting away [in the case of blepharospasm - muscle fibers may become progressively weaker due to treatments]
axonal sprouts beginning growth from nerve extensions
buccolingual pertaining to the cheek or tongue
chemodenervation botulinum toxin injections
cranial pertaining to the skull (head)
doxorubicin injections chemomyectomy (experimental, permanent treatment)
dyskinesias abnormal involuntary movements
dystonia involuntary, uncontrollable muscular contractions or movements
edema body tissues contain an excessive amount of fluid
endocytotic toxic substance within a cell
epiphora abnormal overflow of tears down the cheek
etiology cause (study or theory of the cause of any disease)
exocytotic toxins released from cells
hematoma swelling filled with blood
hypertrophy increase in size, frequently due to over activity
idiopathic of unknown cause
keratitis inflammation of the cornea (outside coat) of the eyeball
lacrimal gland gland producing tears
lagophthalmos incomplete closure of the eyelids
levator aponeurosis tendon that pulls the eyelid up
levator palpebrae main muscle responsible for eyelid opening
levodopa an anti-parkinsonian medication
medial aspect area of the brain towards the center
neuroimaging images of the nervous system, especially the brain
neuromuscular junctions pertaining to where the nerve passes the impulse to the muscle
orbicularis muscle muscle circling the orbit of the eye
orbicularis oculi muscle encircling the opening or orbit of the eye
oromandibular (OMD) pertaining to the mouth and lower jaw
pathophysiology causes
peripheral neurectomy when the nerves are cut (neurectomy) around the outer part [of the eye muscles in the context of BEB literature]
postsynaptic following a synapse (a synapse is a microscopic space between nerve endings where exchange of chemicals carries the message from one nerve to another)
pretarsal orbicularis muscle the circular muscle group closest to the center of the eye orbit
ptosis drooping [of eyelids]
spasmodic dysphonia a form of dystonia affecting the muscles controlling the vocal cords. As a result, the speech of people with SD may be reduced to a whisper, or be produced only haltingly, and with great effort
spasmodic torticollis also known as cervical dystonia, a movement disorder affecting muscles in the neck and shoulders, may turn head into abnormal posture, head bobbing or uncontrollable head turning striated muscle - muscle fibers in voluntary muscles which have alternate light and dark bands (striations)
tarsal plate a curved plate of fibrous tissue providing supporting structure for the eyelid (Same as tarsus)
tarsusa curved plate of dense white fibrous tissue forming supporting structure of the eyelid
temporal aspect part [of brain] located near the temples
thalamus a middle portion of the brain through which sensory impulses pass to reach the higher level of the brain (the cerebrum). The cerebrum controls voluntary movements and higher mental functions
tonic spasm constant, unceasing

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